Beetle pollination

Beetle-pollinated flowers are usually large, greenish or off-white in color and heavily scented. Scents may be spicy, fruity, or similar to decaying organic material. Most beetle-pollinated flowers are flattened or dish shaped, with pollen easily accessible, although they may include traps to keep the beetle longer. The plant's ovaries are usually well protected from the biting mouthparts of their pollinators.[11] Beetles may be particularly important in some parts of the world such as semi-arid areas of southern Africa and southern California[17] and the montane grasslands of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Coleoptera (pron.: /ko?li?pt?r?/) is an order of insects commonly called beetles. The word "coleoptera" is from the Greek , koleos, meaning "sheath"; and , pteron, meaning "wing", thus "sheathed wing". The reason for the name is that most beetles have two pairs of wings, the front pair, the "elytra", being hardened and thickened into a sheath-like, or shell-like, protection for the rear pair, and for the rear part of the beetle's body. The superficial consistency of most beetles' morphology, in particular their possession of elytra, has long suggested that the Coleoptera are monophyletic, but there is growing evidence that this is unjustified, there being arguments for example, in favour of allocating the current suborder Adephaga their own order, o very likely even more than one.[1] KwaZulu-Natal (pron.: /kw?zu?lu? ntl/, also referred to as KZN or Natal) is a province of South Africa. Prior to 1994, the territory now known as KwaZulu-Natal was made up of the province of Natal and the homeland of KwaZulu. In the 1830s, the northern part was the Zulu Kingdom and southern part was briefly a Boer republic called Natalia (18391843). In 1843, the latter became the British Colony of Natal; Zululand (KwaZulu in Zulu) remained independent until 1879. This region is the birthplace of many notable figures in South Africa's history, such as Pixley ka Isaka Seme (founder of the African National Congress and the first Black lawyer in South Africa), John Langalibalele Dube (founding president of the ANC), Mangosuthu Buthelezi (founder of the IFP), Anton Lembede (founding president of the ANC Youth League), Jacob Zuma (current President of South Africa), and Bhambatha. It is called the garden province and is the home of the Zulu nation. Two natural areas: the iSimangaliso Wetland Park and the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park, have been declared UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the southeast of the country, the province has a long shoreline on the Indian Ocean. It borders three other provinces and the countries of Mozambique, Swaziland, and Lesotho. Its capital is Pietermaritzburg, and its largest city is Durban.